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Adjustment Computations (Hardcover / 6th Ed.) : Spatial Data Analysis[Hardcover]

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2013년 9월 9일 이후 누적수치입니다.

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    목차

    PREFACE xv

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Introduction / 1

    1.2 Direct and Indirect Measurements / 2

    1.3 Measurement Error Sources / 2

    1.4 Definitions / 3

    1.5 Precision versus Accuracy / 4

    1.6 Redundant Observations in Surveying and Their Adjustment / 7

    1.7 Advantages of Least Squares Adjustment / 8

    1.8 Overview of the Book / 10

    Problems / 10

    2 Observations and Their Analysis 13

    2.1 Introduction / 13

    2.2 Sample versus Population / 13

    2.3 Range and Median / 14

    2.4 Graphical Representation of Data / 15

    2.5 Numerical Methods of Describing Data / 18

    2.6 Measures of Central Tendency / 18

    2.7 Additional Definitions / 19

    2.8 Alternative Formula for Determining Variance / 22

    2.9 Numerical Examples / 24

    2.10 Root Mean Square Error and Mapping Standards / 28

    2.11 Derivation of the Sample Variance (Bessel’s Correction) / 31

    2.12 Software / 32

    Problems / 34

    Practical Exercises / 37

    3 Random Error Theory 39

    3.1 Introduction / 39

    3.2 Theory of Probability / 39

    3.3 Properties of the Normal Distribution Curve / 42

    3.4 Standard Normal Distribution Function / 44

    3.5 Probability of the Standard Error / 47

    3.6 Uses for Percent Errors / 50

    3.7 Practical Examples / 50

    Problems / 53

    Programming Problems / 55

    4 Confidence Intervals 57

    4.1 Introduction / 57

    4.2 Distributions Used in Sampling Theory / 59

    4.3 Confidence Interval for the Mean: t Statistic / 63

    4.4 Testing the Validity of the Confidence Interval / 66

    4.5 Selecting a Sample Size / 67

    4.6 Confidence Interval for a Population Variance / 68

    4.7 Confidence Interval for the Ratio of Two Population Variances / 70

    4.8 Software / 72

    Problems / 75

    5 Statistical Testing 79

    5.1 Hypothesis Testing / 79

    5.2 Systematic Development of a Test / 82

    5.3 Test of Hypothesis for the Population Mean / 84

    5.4 Test of Hypothesis for the Population Variance / 85

    5.5 Test of Hypothesis for the Ratio of Two Population Variances / 89

    5.6 Software / 92

    Problems / 93

    6 Propagation of Random Errors in Indirectly Measured Quantities 97

    6.1 Basic Error Propagation Equation / 97

    6.2 Frequently Encountered Specific Functions / 102

    6.3 Numerical Examples / 103

    6.4 Software / 107

    6.5 Conclusions / 109

    Problems / 109

    Practical Exercises / 112

    7 Error Propagation in Angle and Distance Observations 113

    7.1 Introduction / 113

    7.2 Error Sources in Horizontal Angles / 113

    7.3 Reading Errors / 114

    7.4 Pointing Errors / 116

    7.5 Estimated Pointing and Reading Errors with Total Stations / 117

    7.6 Target-Centering Errors / 118

    7.7 Instrument Centering Errors / 120

    7.8 Effects of Leveling Errors in Angle Observations / 123

    7.9 Numerical Example of Combined Error Propagation in a Single Horizontal Angle / 126

    7.10 Using Estimated Errors to Check Angular Misclosure in a Traverse / 127

    7.11 Errors in Astronomical Observations for Azimuth / 130

    7.12 Errors in Electronic Distance Observations / 135

    7.13 Centering Errors When Using Range Poles / 136

    7.14 Software / 137

    Problems / 138

    Programming Problems / 141

    8 Error Propagation in Traverse Surveys 143

    8.1 Introduction / 143

    8.2 Derivation of Estimated Error in Latitude and Departure / 144

    8.3 Derivation of Estimated Standard Errors in Course Azimuths / 146

    8.4 Computing and Analyzing Polygon Traverse Misclosure Errors / 146

    8.5 Computing and Analyzing Link Traverse Misclosure Errors / 152

    8.6 Software / 156

    8.7 Conclusions / 157

    Problems / 157

    Programming Problems / 161

    9 Error Propagation in Elevation Determination 163

    9.1 Introduction / 163

    9.2 Systematic Errors in Differential Leveling / 163

    9.3 Random Errors in Differential Leveling / 166

    9.4 Error Propagation in Trigonometric Leveling / 171

    Problems / 174

    Programming Problems / 177

    10 Weights of Observations 179

    10.1 Introduction / 179

    10.2 Weighted Mean / 181

    10.3 Relationship Between Weights and Standard Errors / 183

    10.4 Statistics of Weighted Observations / 184

    10.5 Weights in Angle Observations / 185

    10.6 Weights in Differential Leveling / 186

    10.7 Practical Examples / 187

    Problems / 190

    11 Principles of Least Squares 193

    11.1 Introduction / 193

    11.2 Fundamental Principle of Least Squares / 194

    11.3 The Fundamental Principle of Weighted Least Squares / 196

    11.4 The Stochastic Model / 197

    11.5 Functional Model / 197

    11.6 Observation Equations / 199

    11.7 Systematic Formulation of the Normal Equations / 201

    11.8 Tabular Formation of the Normal Equations / 203

    11.9 Using Matrices to Form the Normal Equations / 204

    11.10 Least Squares Solution of Nonlinear Systems / 207

    11.11 Least Squares Fit of Points to a Line or Curve / 211

    11.12 Calibration of an EDM Instrument / 214

    11.13 Least Squares Adjustment Using Conditional Equations / 215

    11.14 The Previous Example Using Observation Equations / 217

    11.15 Software / 219

    Problems / 219

    12 Adjustment of Level Nets 225

    12.1 Introduction / 225

    12.2 Observation Equation / 225

    12.3 Unweighted Example / 226

    12.4 Weighted Example / 229

    12.5 Reference Standard Deviation / 231

    12.6 Another Weighted Adjustment / 233

    12.7 Software / 236

    Problems / 238

    Programming Problems / 242

    13 Precisions of Indirectly Determined Quantities 245

    13.1 Introduction / 245

    13.2 Development of the Covariance Matrix / 245

    13.3 Numerical Examples / 249

    13.4 Standard Deviations of Computed Quantities / 250

    Problems / 254

    Programming Problems / 256

    14 Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Trilateration 257

    14.1 Introduction / 257

    14.2 Distance Observation Equation / 259

    14.3 Trilateration Adjustment Example / 261

    14.4 Formulation of a Generalized Coefficient Matrix for a More Complex Network / 268

    14.5 Computer Solution of a Trilaterated Quadrilateral / 269

    14.6 Iteration Termination / 273

    14.7 Software / 274

    Problems / 276

    Programming Problems / 282

    15 Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Triangulation 283

    15.1 Introduction / 283

    15.2 Azimuth Observation Equation / 284

    15.3 Angle Observation Equation / 286

    15.4 Adjustment of Intersections / 288

    15.5 Adjustment of Resections / 293

    15.6 Adjustment of Triangulated Quadrilaterals / 298

    Problems / 303

    Programming Problems / 312

    16 Adjustment of Horizontal Surveys: Traverses and Horizontal Networks 313

    16.1 Introduction to Traverse Adjustments / 313

    16.2 Observation Equations / 313

    16.3 Redundant Equations / 314

    16.4 Numerical Example / 315

    16.5 Minimum Amount of Control / 321

    16.6 Adjustment of Networks / 322

    16.7 ;;2 Test: Goodness of Fit / 330

    Problems / 331

    Programming Problems / 342

    17 Adjustment of GNSS Networks 343

    17.1 Introduction / 343

    17.2 GNSS Observations / 344

    17.3 GNSS Errors and the Need for Adjustment / 347

    17.4 Reference Coordinate Systems for GNSS Observations / 347

    17.5 Converting Between the Terrestrial and Geodetic Coordinate Systems / 350

    17.6 Application of Least Squares in Processing GNSS Data / 354

    17.7 Network Preadjustment Data Analysis / 356

    17.8 Least Squares Adjustment of GNSS Networks / 363

    Problems / 369

    Programming Problems / 386

    18 Coordinate Transformations 389

    18.1 Introduction / 389

    18.2 The Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate / 389

    18.3 Equation Development / 390

    18.4 Application of Least Squares / 392

    18.5 Two-Dimensional Affine Coordinate Transformation / 395

    18.6 The Two-Dimensional Projective Coordinate Transformation / 398

    18.7 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation / 401

    18.8 Statistically Valid Parameters / 407

    Problems / 411

    Programming Problems / 418

    19 Error Ellipse 419

    19.1 Introduction / 419

    19.2 Computation of Ellipse Orientation and Semiaxes / 421

    19.3 Example Problem of Standard Error Ellipse Calculations / 426

    19.4 Another Example Problem / 428

    19.5 The Error Ellipse Confidence Level / 429

    19.6 Error Ellipse Advantages / 431

    19.7 Other Measures of Station Uncertainty / 435

    Problems / 441

    Programming Problems / 442

    20 Constraint Equations 443

    20.1 Introduction / 443

    20.2 Adjustment of Control Station Coordinates / 443

    20.3 Holding Control Station Coordinates and Directions of Lines Fixed in a Trilateration Adjustment / 449

    20.4 Helmert’s Method / 452

    20.5 Redundancies in a Constrained Adjustment / 458

    20.6 Enforcing Constraints through Weighting / 458

    Problems / 460

    Practical Problems / 463

    21 Blunder Detection in Horizontal Networks 465

    21.1 Introduction / 465

    21.2 A Priori Methods for Detecting Blunders in Observations / 466

    21.3 A Posteriori Blunder Detection / 468

    21.4 Development of the Covariance Matrix for the Residuals / 470

    21.5 Detection of Outliers in Observations: Data Snooping / 472

    21.6 Detection of Outliers in Observations: The Tau Criterion / 474

    21.7 Techniques Used in Adjusting Control / 476

    21.8 A Data Set with Blunders / 477

    21.9 Some Further Considerations / 485

    21.10 Survey Design / 487

    21.11 Software / 489

    Problems / 490

    Practical Problems / 496

    22 The General Least Squares Method and Its Application to Curve Fitting and Coordinate Transformations 497

    22.1 Introduction to General Least Squares / 497

    22.2 General Least Squares Equations for Fitting a Straight Line / 497

    22.3 General Least Squares Solution / 499

    22.4 Two-Dimensional Coordinate Transformation by General Least Squares / 503

    22.5 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation by General Least Squares / 509

    Problems / 511

    Programming Problems / 515

    23 Three-Dimensional Geodetic Network Adjustment 517

    23.1 Introduction / 517

    23.2 Linearization of Equations / 519

    23.3 Minimum Number of Constraints / 524

    23.4 Example Adjustment / 525

    23.5 Building an Adjustment / 533

    23.6 Comments on Systematic Errors / 534

    23.7 Software / 537

    Problems / 538

    Programming Problems / 543

    24 Combining GNSS and Terrestrial Observations 545

    24.1 Introduction / 545

    24.2 The Helmert Transformation / 547

    24.3 Rotations between Coordinate Systems / 551

    24.4 Combining GNSS Baseline Vectors with Traditional Observations / 552

    24.5 Another Approach to Transforming Coordinates between Reference Frames / 556

    24.6 Other Considerations / 559

    Problems / 560

    Programming Problems / 563

    25 Analysis of Adjustments 565

    25.1 Introduction / 565

    25.2 Basic Concepts, Residuals, and the Normal Distribution / 565

    25.3 Goodness of Fit Test / 568

    25.4 Comparison of GNSS Residual Plots / 572

    25.5 Use of Statistical Blunder Detection / 574

    Problems / 574

    26 Computer Optimization 577

    26.1 Introduction / 577

    26.2 Storage Optimization / 578

    26.3 Direct Formation of the Normal Equations / 580

    26.4 Cholesky Decomposition / 581

    26.5 Forward and Back Solutions / 583

    26.6 Using the Cholesky Factor to Find the Inverse of the Normal Matrix / 584

    26.7 Spareness and Optimization of the Normal Matrix / 586

    Problems / 590

    Programming Problems / 590

    Appendix A Introduction to Matrices 591

    A.1 Introduction / 591

    A.2 Definition of a Matrix / 591

    A.3 Size or Dimensions of a Matrix / 592

    A.4 Types of Matrices / 593

    A.5 Matrix Equality / 594

    A.6 Addition or Subtraction of Matrices / 595

    A.7 Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix / 595

    A.8 Matrix Multiplication / 595

    A.9 Computer Algorithms for Matrix Operations / 598

    A.10 Use of the Matrix Software / 601

    Problems / 603

    Programming Problems / 605

    Appendix B Solution of Equations by Matrix Methods 607

    B.1 Introduction / 607

    B.2 Inverse Matrix / 607

    B.3 The Inverse of a 2 × 2 Matrix / 608

    B.4 Inverses by Adjoints / 610

    B.5 Inverses by Elementary Row Transformations / 611

    B.6 Example Problem / 616

    Problems / 617

    Programming Problems / 618

    Appendix C Nonlinear Equations and Taylor’s Theorem 619

    C.1 Introduction / 619

    C.2 Taylor Series Linearization of Nonlinear Equations / 619

    C.3 Numerical Example / 620

    C.4 Using Matrices to Solve Nonlinear Equations / 622

    C.5 Simple Matrix Example / 623

    C.6 Practical Example / 624

    C.7 Concluding Remarks / 626

    Problems / 627

    Programming Problems / 628

    Appendix D The Normal Error Distribution Curve and Other

    Statistical Tables 629

    D.1 Development for Normal Distribution Curve Equation / 629

    D.2 Other Statistical Tables / 637

    Appendix E Confidence Intervals for the Mean 649

    Appendix F Map Projection Coordinate Systems 655

    F.1 Introduction / 655

    F.2 Mathematics of the Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection / 657

    F.3 Mathematics from the Transverse Mercator / 659

    F.4 Stereographic Map Projection / 662

    F.5 Reduction of Observations / 663

    Appendix G Companion Website 669

    G.1 Introduction / 669

    G.2 File Formats and Memory Matters / 670

    G.3 Software / 670

    G.4 Using the Software as an Instructional Aid / 674

    Appendix H Answers to Selected Problems 675

    BIBLIOGRAPHY 681

    INDEX 685

    책소개

    The definitive guide to bringing accuracy to measurement, updated and supplemented
    Adjustment Computations is the classic textbook for spatial information analysis and adjustment computations, providing clear, easy-to-understand instruction backed by real-world practicality. From the basic terms and fundamentals of errors to specific adjustment computations and spatial information analysis, this book covers the methodologies and tools that bring accuracy to surveying, GNSS, GIS, and other spatial technologies. Broad in scope yet rich in detail, the discussion avoids overly-complex theory in favor of practical techniques for students and professionals. This new sixth edition has been updated to align with the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field, and includes new video lessons and updated problems, including worked problems in STATS, MATRIX, ADJUST, and MathCAD.

    All measurement produces some amount of error; whether from human mistakes, instrumentation inaccuracy, or environmental features, these errors must be accounted and adjusted for when accuracy is critical. This book describes how errors are identified, analyzed, measured, and corrected, with a focus on least squares adjustment?the most rigorous methodology available.
    Apply industry-standard methodologies to error analysis and adjustment
    Translate your skills to the real-world with instruction focused on the practical
    Master the fundamentals as well as specific computations and analysis
    Strengthen your understanding of critical topics on the Fundamentals in Surveying Licensing Exam

    As spatial technologies expand in both use and capability, so does our need for professionals who understand how to check and adjust for errors in spatial data. Conceptual knowledge is one thing, but practical skills are what counts when accuracy is at stake; Adjustment Computations provides the real-world training you need to identify, analyze, and correct for potentially crucial errors.



    New feature

    The Definitive Guide to Bringing Accuracy to Measurement, Updated and Supplemented

    Adjustment Computations is the classic textbook for spatial information analysis and adjustment computations, providing clear, easy-to-understand instruction backed by real-world practicality. From the basic terms and fundamentals of errors to specific adjustment computations and spatial information analysis, this book covers the methodologies and tools that bring accuracy to surveying, GNSS, GIS, and other spatial technologies. Broad in scope yet rich in detail, the discussion avoids overly-complex theory in favor of practical techniques for students and professionals. This new sixth edition has been updated to align with the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field, and includes new video lessons and updated problems, including worked problems in STATS, MATRIX, ADJUST, and Mathcad®.

    All measurement produces some amount of error; whether from human mistakes, instrumentation inaccuracy, or environmental features, these errors must be accounted and adjusted for when accuracy is critical. This book describes how errors are identified, analyzed, measured, and corrected, with a focus on least squares adjustment?the most rigorous methodology available.
    Apply industry-standard methodologies to error analysis and adjustment
    Translate your skills to the real-world with instruction focused on the practical
    Master the fundamentals as well as specific computations and analysis
    Strengthen your understanding of critical topics on the Fundamentals in Surveying Licensing Exam

    As spatial technologies expand in both use and capability, so does our need for professionals who understand how to check and adjust for errors in spatial data. Conceptual knowledge is one thing, but practical skills are what counts when accuracy is at stake; Adjustment Computations provides the real-world training you need to identify, analyze, and correct for potentially crucial errors.

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    Ghilani, Charles D. [저] 신작알림 SMS신청 작가DB보기
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